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Teaching Organic Chemistry through Fiction

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Important Facts to Remember: Nucleophilic Substitution Part 2
rsou wrote in help_im_diene
Important Facts to Remember:

Stability Atoms and molecules do not actually go out to form and break bonds with each other. All actions are a part of electronic attractions to form a more stable product.
Nucleophile An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to a positive charge or nucleus.
Typically negatively charged.
Electrophile An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to a negative charge, or electrons.
Typically positively charged.
Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
(Sn reaction)
A reaction where a nucleophile attached to a carbon is replaced with a different nucleophile.
Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction (Sn1) A reaction where the rate determining step for the reaction consists of only one substance. The first step of an Sn1 reaction is the departure of the leaving group.
Leaving Group A nucleophile that leaves the central carbon atom. Leaving groups are typically stable atoms or groups.
Carbocation A carbon atom with a positive charge. Carbocatoins are formed after the departure of a leaving group.
Substituent An atom or group of atoms (not a hydrogen) that is attached to a central carbon atom. When one substituent is attached to a carbon, the carbon is called a primary carbon. When two substituents are attached, the carbon is secondary, and when three substituents are attached the carbon is tertiary.
Hyperconjugation The distribution of charge throughout a larger area without active sharing of charge. Example: you have a certain amount of water and two pans of different sizes. A large pan can hold the water better than a smaller pan because the water has more space to spread out.
Carbocation Stability Because of hyperconjugation, tertiary carbocations are more stable than secondary, which are more stable to primary.
Resonance Active sharing of charge.


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