Important Facts to Remember:
|Stability||Atoms and molecules do not actually go out to form and break bonds with each other. All actions are a part of electronic attractions to form a more stable product.|
|Nucleophile||An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to a positive charge or nucleus.
Typically negatively charged.
|Electrophile||An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to a negative charge, or electrons.
Typically positively charged.
|Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
|A reaction where a nucleophile attached to a carbon is replaced with a different nucleophile.|
|Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction (Sn1)||A reaction where the rate determining step for the reaction consists of only one substance. The first step of an Sn1 reaction is the departure of the leaving group.|
|Leaving Group||A nucleophile that leaves the central carbon atom. Leaving groups are typically stable atoms or groups.|
|Carbocation||A carbon atom with a positive charge. Carbocatoins are formed after the departure of a leaving group.|
|Substituent||An atom or group of atoms (not a hydrogen) that is attached to a central carbon atom. When one substituent is attached to a carbon, the carbon is called a primary carbon. When two substituents are attached, the carbon is secondary, and when three substituents are attached the carbon is tertiary.|
|Hyperconjugation||The distribution of charge throughout a larger area without active sharing of charge. Example: you have a certain amount of water and two pans of different sizes. A large pan can hold the water better than a smaller pan because the water has more space to spread out.|
|Carbocation Stability||Because of hyperconjugation, tertiary carbocations are more stable than secondary, which are more stable to primary.|
|Resonance||Active sharing of charge.|